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who set up the social and political system of sparta

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Who Set Up The Social And Political System Of Sparta?

Sparta was an oligarchy. The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families, both supposedly descendants of Heracles and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the power and political enactments of his colleague.

Who made up the social classes of Sparta?

Spartan Society

The population of Sparta consisted of three main groups: the Spartans, or Spartiates, who were full citizens; the Helots, or serfs/slaves; and the Perioeci, who were neither slaves nor citizens.

Who held political power in Sparta?

Sparta had a highly unusual system of government. Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member ‘council of elders’ limited their powers. These men were recruited from the highest social class, the aristocratic Spartiates.

Who founded Sparta?

Sparta was unique among the Greek city-states because of the rigid program of military indoctrination it instilled in its citizens. Legend dates the founding of the city to Mycenean times, when the legendary King Menelaus, who helped defeat Troy, supposedly ruled the city.

How was government and society organized in Sparta?

Spartan political system was a combination of monarchy (kings), oligarchy (Gerousia) and democracy (ephoroi, ephors). Oligarchy– Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia).

Who were the Helots who lived in the region controlled by Sparta?

helot, a state-owned serf of the ancient Spartans. The ethnic origin of helots is uncertain, but they were probably the original inhabitants of Laconia (the area around the Spartan capital) who were reduced to servility after the conquest of their land by the numerically fewer Dorians.

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Who prepared the proposed laws and policies in Athens and Sparta?

Five overseers (ephors) elected annually ran the day-to-day operations of Sparta. They could veto rulings made by the council or assembly. Council or Senate (apella) of 28 councilmen (men over 60 and elected for life by the citizens) and the 2 kings. They acted as judges and proposed laws to the citizens’ assembly.

What was Athens government?

Classical Athens/Government
Athenian democracy refers to the system of democratic government used in Athens, Greece from the 5th to 4th century BCE. Under this system, all male citizens – the dēmos – had equal political rights, freedom of speech, and the opportunity to participate directly in the political arena.

How was social status primarily determined in Sparta?

Though there was a very sharp distinction between Spartans and helots, Spartan society itself did not have a complex social hierarchy, at least in theory. Instead of wealth being a distinguishing marker, social status was determined by military achievements.

Who were the Gerousia in Sparta?

The Gerousia (γερουσία) was the Spartan council of elders, which was made up of men over the age of sixty. It was created by the Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus in the seventh century BC, in his Great Rhetra (“Great Pronouncement”).

Who ruled Athens?

Athens did not have a king, it was ruled by the people as a democracy. The people of Athens believed that no one group of people should make the laws and so citizens could choose the government officials, and vote for or against new laws. The people of Athens chose their ruler.

Who were the helots and what did they do?

In Ancient Sparta, the Helots were a subjugated population of slaves. Formerly warriors, the Helots outnumbered the Spartans considerably. During the time of the Battle of Plataea, which took place in 479 B.C., there were seven Helots for every Spartan.

Who were the two kings who ruled Sparta?

The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of the two founding families, Agaidai and Eurypontidae.

Names & Dates of the Kings of Sparta.
House of Agaidai House of Eurypontidai
Cleomenes 520–490 Ariston 550–515
Leonidas 490–480 Demaratus 515–491

Was Sparta a democracy?

Ancient Greece, in its early period, was a loose collection of independent city states called poleis. Many of these poleis were oligarchies. … Yet Sparta, in its rejection of private wealth as a primary social differentiator, was a peculiar kind of oligarchy and some scholars note its resemblance to democracy.

When did the Spartan empire start?

The two major powers in the eastern Mediterranean in the 5th century BC had been Athens and Sparta. The defeat of Athens by Sparta resulted in Spartan hegemony in the early 4th century BC.

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What kind of government did Sparta have quizlet?

Sparta was called an oligarchy because the real power was in the hands of a few people. The important decisions were made by the council of elders. Council members had to be at least 60 and wealthy. Council members served for life.

What was the purpose of government in Sparta?

They had the power to try and indict the kings in a trial, they could pass or advise laws, and two ephors traveled with the king on military campaigns to keep his ego in check. They were the most powerful branch of Sparta’s government after the kings themselves.

Who were the helots who lived in the region controlled by Sparta quizlet?

who were the helots who lived in the region controlled by Sparta? they were slaves who worked the land for spartan people.

Who freed the helots?

commander Epaminondas
In 371, the Theban commander Epaminondas defeated the Spartans at Leuctra, and later, he invaded the Peloponnese, where he liberated the helots of Messenia. The helots of Laconia appear to have been emancipated later by the reformer kings Cleomenes III (235-222) and Nabis (207-192).

What was the role of the helots?

Helots were assigned to citizens to carry out domestic work or to work on their klēroi, or portions. The klēroi, were the original divisions of Messenia after its conquest by Sparta. Various sources mention such servants accompanying this or that Spartan.

Why did Athens and Sparta develop different political systems?

Why did ancient city-states of Athens and Sparta develop different political systems? … The mountainous topography resulted in the isolation of these city-states. Foreign travelers introduced new philosophies. For over three centuries, civil wars raged in these city-states.

How did the political systems in Athens and Sparta differ?

Sparta was ruled by two kings, who ruled until they died or were forced out of office. Athens was ruled by archons, who were elected annually. Thus, because both parts of Athens’ government had leaders who were elected, Athens is said to have been the birthplace of democracy. Spartan life was simple.

What were the major political and social differences between Athens and Sparta during the 6th and 5th centuries BC E?

The Athenian form of electing a government was called Limited Democracy while the Spartan form was called oligarchy” (rule by a few), but it had elements of monarchy (rule by kings), democracy (through the election of council/senators), and aristocracy (rule by the upper class or land owning class).

Who is Socrates philosophy?

Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.

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What was Sparta’s focus as a city-state?

Sparta’s focus as a city-state was military. They trained young men to become soldiers. They were like the Hikkos and the Assyrians and Unlike the Phoenicians or the Mionaons.

Who introduced democracy?

Under Cleisthenes, what is generally held as the first example of a type of democracy in 508–507 BC was established in Athens. Cleisthenes is referred to as “the father of Athenian democracy”.

Who was at the bottom of the social structure?

A sizable group of artisans and craftsmen, producing specialized goods, belonged to the lower economic classes. Even lower in the social hierarchy were the peasants, and at the bottom of the social scale were the slaves, most likely originating as war captives or ruined debtors.

What was the Spartan caste system?

The Spartan Caste System setup are the Helots who are slaves and laborers. The Perioeci who were neither slaves nor full citizens. … There are three groups of people, Spartriates, Helots, and Periokoi. The Spartriates were the warrior class and where they are to become full citzens.

What was Athens social structure?

Athenian society was composed of four main social classes – slaves, metics (non-citizen freepersons), women, and citizens, but within each of these broad classes were several sub-classes (such as the difference between common citizens and aristocratic citizens).

Who elected the Gerousia?

Its members, the gerontes (“elders”), whose number was fixed at 30, including the two kings, were chosen for life by acclamation of the citizens from among candidates who had reached age 60.

Who wrote Ephors?

They were five in number. Some writers have declared that the Romans based the prestige of the people’s tribunes upon the Spartan ephors. Xenophon describes their authority concisely [2].
Title: Ephor
Original Title: Ephore
Volume and Page: Vol. 5 (1755), pp. 774–775
Author: Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt (biography)

Who elected the council of elders in Sparta?

Ephors
The council of elders were usually wealthy men from aristocratic (rich) families. The Spartan government was an oligarchy, where 28 rich men could overrule the majority of the people. Each year the Assembly elected 5 Ephors.

Who founded Athens?

According to Greek mythology, the first city of Athens was Phoenician and Cecrops was the king who founded it. The city of Athens was officially created the day the Gods decided to have a contest: the growing city would be named after the deity who would offer to mortals the most useful gift.

√ Social and political system of Sparta – Ancient History – Ancient History

The Constitution of the Spartans

Spartan government

This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world – Craig Zimmer

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