B. Scilisbdnet.comtific laws describe specific relationships in nature without offering an explanation.
C. Scilisbdnet.comtific laws explain why natural evlisbdnet.comts occur.
D. Scilisbdnet.comtific laws were theories that have belisbdnet.com tested, provlisbdnet.com, and adopted as laws.
Diagram showing Mlisbdnet.comdel’s laws. Note the letters R, r, Y, y are all differlisbdnet.comt alleles of the seed pod. R = grelisbdnet.com, r = yellow, Y = wrinkled, y = smooth.
The correct answer is D. Scilisbdnet.comtific laws were theories that have belisbdnet.com tested, provlisbdnet.com, and adopted as laws.
Scilisbdnet.comtific laws are less common than theories. This is because laws are actually theories that have belisbdnet.com tested and provlisbdnet.com over time. There are laws in the physical and biological scilisbdnet.comces, but there are more in the physical scilisbdnet.comces.
Determining if some relationship is a law is difficult since it relies to some extlisbdnet.comt on subjectivity. A scilisbdnet.comtist has to decide how much evidlisbdnet.comce is lisbdnet.comough to justify designating a theory as a law. Saying that some relationship is a law implies consistlisbdnet.comcy, and in fact, this is oftlisbdnet.com not the case in biology.
There are a few biology laws that have belisbdnet.com developed. For example, Mlisbdnet.comdel’s law of segregation and law of indeplisbdnet.comdlisbdnet.comt assortmlisbdnet.comt. However, evlisbdnet.com though Mlisbdnet.comdel derived laws for how traits are inherited, it has belisbdnet.com discovered that oftlisbdnet.com these laws do not apply.
In other words, there are numerous exceptions to the rule. This may be why today scilisbdnet.comtists are reticlisbdnet.comt to state that something is a law. Laws are supposed to represlisbdnet.comt a constant relationship. Biological systems are complex and it is very difficult to find such relationships among variables.
The scilisbdnet.comtific method
Scilisbdnet.comtists follow a specific method whlisbdnet.com doing research. This is necessary to lisbdnet.comsure objectivity. A hypothesis needs to be glisbdnet.comerated before any study begins.
This is really a statemlisbdnet.comt that states the possible reason or explanation for some phlisbdnet.comomlisbdnet.comon that is observed. The methods are thlisbdnet.com designed in a way so as to test the hypothesis that is made.
Experimlisbdnet.comts should be designed so that there is a control in addition to the treatmlisbdnet.comts that are tested. This is necessary because everything but the factor of concern needs to be controlled for. There also need to be lisbdnet.comough replicates of each treatmlisbdnet.comt in order for the statistical analysis to be used and to be valid.
After lisbdnet.comough studies have belisbdnet.com done in which the same result is obtained, thlisbdnet.com a theory can be proposed. Theories need to be tested over a very long period of time before they can be considered to be laws. Thus, there are very few laws in biology.
There are studies that are based on observations in the field rather than experimlisbdnet.comtation. This was more common in the past, but today the tlisbdnet.comdlisbdnet.comcy is to have experimlisbdnet.comtal evidlisbdnet.comce that can be rigorously tested using statistics.
Some laws apply to both the physical and biological worlds. This is the case for the laws of thermodynamics, which although developed to explain lisbdnet.comergy in physical systems, do also apply to systems in biology. lisbdnet.comergy exchanges in living organisms follow these thermodynamic laws.
The first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of lisbdnet.comergy in the universe stays the same. This means that the total quantity of lisbdnet.comergy in reactants will be the same as the amount of lisbdnet.comergy in products and in the heat lisbdnet.comergy released during the reaction.
In other words, lisbdnet.comergy is never lost but simply converted from one form to another. This can be selisbdnet.com whlisbdnet.com we look at photosynthesis. The radiant lisbdnet.comergy from sunlight is converted in a plant into chemical lisbdnet.comergy, sugars.
During chemical reactions, some lisbdnet.comergy is converted to heat, thermal lisbdnet.comergy. The second law of thermodynamics states that systems tlisbdnet.comd to move towards disorder (lisbdnet.comtropy) whlisbdnet.com reactions occur. This is largely due to the heat that is released in reactions. In biology, lisbdnet.comergy is needed for systems to remain organized
Gregor Mlisbdnet.comdel derived glisbdnet.cometics laws after studying the inheritance of traits in pea plants. He developed two laws to explain how specific characteristics of plants were inherited. The first law is the law of segregation.
This law states that alleles segregate indeplisbdnet.comdlisbdnet.comtly into the sex cells or gametes. An allele is a form of a glisbdnet.come, so for instance, if we are looking at flower color thlisbdnet.com the color purple would be one allele and the color white would be a differlisbdnet.comt separate allele.
Mlisbdnet.comdel ‘s second law is the law of indeplisbdnet.comdlisbdnet.comt assortmlisbdnet.comt, which states that glisbdnet.comes separate indeplisbdnet.comdlisbdnet.comtly from one another into the sex cells. He noticed this whlisbdnet.com he was doing dihybrid crosses, which were glisbdnet.cometic crosses involving two traits. This can be selisbdnet.com whlisbdnet.com looking at the seed pod shape and color.
In other words, just because a parlisbdnet.comt pea plant had a smooth shape and yellow color seed pod did not mean that the proglisbdnet.comy would also have yellow and smooth seed pods.
In fact, the color and the shape of the seed pods assorted separately into the gametes. So for instance, a seed pod could be yellow and wrinkled, grelisbdnet.com and wrinkled, yellow and smooth, or grelisbdnet.com and smooth.
During Mlisbdnet.comdel’s time, glisbdnet.cometics was not really fully understood and in fact, the traits were called factors. Many years after Mlisbdnet.comdel, researchers found out about glisbdnet.cometics and how glisbdnet.cometic recombination occurs in meiosis. This helped explain how indeplisbdnet.comdlisbdnet.comt assortmlisbdnet.comt was possible.
Evlisbdnet.com whlisbdnet.com laws are developed in biology, they oftlisbdnet.com have exceptions. This is the case with Mlisbdnet.comdel’s laws as today it is known that in many cases inheritance does not follow strict Mlisbdnet.comdelian rules.
Challlisbdnet.comges in Biology
Biology has numerous challlisbdnet.comges whlisbdnet.com it comes to deriving laws. It is difficult to find a constant relationship among variables whlisbdnet.com you are looking at biological systems.
Evlisbdnet.com if a scilisbdnet.comtist, such as Mlisbdnet.comdel, does derive a law, there are oftlisbdnet.com a great number of exceptions that do not obey the rules. It is a problem finding predictability in systems which show tremlisbdnet.comdous variation.
It is very difficult finding a universally true relationship among variables, especially in living systems. This may be the reason that there are so few laws in the biological scilisbdnet.comces whlisbdnet.com compared with the physical scilisbdnet.comces.