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What Was The First Fleet?

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What Was The First Fleet?

Australia’s “First Fleet” was a group of 11 ships and about 1,400 people who established the first European settlements in Botany Bay and Sydney. On May 13, 1787, a group of over 1,400 people in 11 ships set sail from Portsmouth, England. The convicts of the First Fleet included both men and women. …Mar 11, 2021

What was the purpose of the First Fleet?

The First Fleet, consisting of 11 vessels, was the largest single contingent of ships to sail into the Pacific Ocean. Its purpose was to find a convict settlement on the east coast of Australia, at Botany Bay.

Why was the First Fleet so bad?

It had poor soil, insufficient freshwater supplies, and was exposed to strong southerly and easterly winds. With all the cargo and 1,400 starving convicts still anchored in Botany Bay, Phillip and a small party, including Hunter, quickly set off in three boats to find an alternative place to settle.

What was the First Fleet for kid?

The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships which sailed from Great Britain on 13 May 1787, to start the first European colony in New South Wales. It was the beginning of a plan to send thousands of prisoners to Australia to make convict settlements. The fleet was led by Captain Arthur Phillip.

How many people died in First Fleet?

The eleven ships which arrived on 26 January 1788 are known as the First Fleet. They carried around 1400 convicts, soldiers and free people. The journey from England to Australia took 252 days and there were around 48 deaths on the voyage.

What did the First Fleet bring?

The fleet consisted of nine merchant ships – six of them carrying convicts and marines (Alexander, Charlotte, Friendship, Lady Penrhyn, Prince of Wales and Scarborough) and three loaded with stores and equipment (Borrowdale, Fishburn and Golden Grove) – and two naval vessels, the Sirius and the Supply.

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What did convicts do in Australia?

Convicts were a source of labour to build roads, bridges, courthouses, hospitals and other public buildings, or to work on government farms, while educated convicts may have been given jobs such as record-keeping for the government administration. Female convicts, on the other hand, were generally employed as domestic …

How did the First Fleet treat the indigenous?

Governor Phillip reported that smallpox had killed half of the Indigenous people in the Sydney region within fourteen months of the arrival of the First Fleet. The sexual abuse and exploitation of Indigenous girls and women also introduced venereal disease to Indigenous people in epidemic proportions.

How many fleets came to Australia?

11 ships
The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships that brought the first European settlers to Australia. It was made up of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports.

Convict transports.
Ship Charlotte
Crew 30
Marines 32
Arrived Botany Bay 20 January 1788
Duration (days) 252

How many female convicts were on the First Fleet?

The ships departed with an estimated 775 convicts (582 men and 193 women), as well as officers, marines, their wives and children, and provisions and agricultural implements.

Who leaded the First Fleet?

Captain Arthur Phillip
In May 1787 the First Fleet, commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip (1738–1814), left Portsmouth in England with six convict transports, three store ships and two navy vessels, including the flagship HMS Sirius.

Where did the First Fleet stop?

The First Fleet left Portsmouth, England on 13 May 1787. The entire journey took 252 days (a little over 8 months). From England, the fleet sailed to Australia making stops in Santa Cruz, Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town. They arrived in Botany Bay in mid-January 1788.

Why did the First Fleet go to Australia?

Before 1787 convicts from England had been sent to British colonies in North America. … The First Fleet was the first group of ships to carry convicts to the British colony in Australia. Captain Arthur Phillip was in charge and his job was to establish a convict settlement in Australia.

Who was the youngest convict?

John Hudson, described as ‘sometimes a chimney sweeper’, was the youngest known convict to sail with the First Fleet. Voyaging on board the Friendship to NSW, the boy thief was 13 years old on arrival at Sydney Cove. He was only nine when first sentenced.

What did the convicts eat?

Convicts ate bread,hardtack,salted beef or pork,peas,oatmeal,butter,cheese. They also ate rise,fruit,vegetables.

What was the last convict ship to sail to Australia?

The Hougoumont
The Hougoumont, the last ship to take convicts from the UK to Australia, docked in Fremantle, Western Australia, on January 9, 1868 – 150 years ago. It brought an end to a process which deposited about 168,000 convicted prisoners in Australia after it began in 1788.Jan 8, 2018

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What were the 11 ships of the First Fleet?

The First Fleet’s 11 ships comprised two Royal Navy escort ships, the HMS Sirius and HMS Supply, six convict transports, the Alexander, Charlotte, Friendship, Lady Penrhyn, Prince of Wales and the Scarborough, and three store ships, the Borrowdale, Fishburn and Golden Grove.

How were convicts treated on the First Fleet?

The treatment of the transported convicts was poor and the use of excessive punishment was rife throughout the penal system. Lashings were commonplace and for those prisoners who did not behave accordingly, they were taken elsewhere to suffer a secondary punishment.

When did Australia Day first start?

1915
Australia Day – 30th July On July 30 in 1915, the first official Australia Day was held, which was actually to raise funds for the World War I effort. Ellen Wharton-Kirke, from Manly NSW, made the suggestion to Premier Sir Charles Wade, reportedly due to the enlistment of her three sons.Jan 12, 2021

Where did the convicts sleep?

Convicts slept in hammocks that were folded away each morning. Each ward had a large wooden tub that served as a communal toilet. The convicts had to carefully carry these tubs outside daily to be emptied and cleaned.

What did female convicts do in Australia?

Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public.

Where did the Australian accent come from?

Australian English can be described as a new dialect that developed as a result of contact between people who spoke different, mutually intelligible, varieties of English. The very early form of Australian English would have been first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the early colony in Sydney.

How did aboriginals get to Australia?

Aboriginal origins

Humans are thought to have migrated to Northern Australia from Asia using primitive boats. A current theory holds that those early migrants themselves came out of Africa about 70,000 years ago, which would make Aboriginal Australians the oldest population of humans living outside Africa.

What diseases did the First Fleet bring?

Arrival of smallpox in Sydney

In April 1789, 15 months after the First Fleet arrived to establish a penal colony in NSW, a major smallpox epidemic broke out. The outbreak did not affect the British colonists, most of whom had been exposed to the disease during their infancy.

What date did Australia get invaded?

January 26, 1788
January 26, 1788, is the day Captain Arthur Phillip landed on Australian soil with the First Fleet of British ships. He raised the British flag at Sydney Cove to claim New South Wales as a British Colony. This day marks the beginning of a long and brutal colonisation of people and land.

What happened on the 26th of January 1788?

How 26th January 1788 became Australia Day. Captain Arthur Phillip took formal possession of the colony of New South Wales on 26 January 1788 and raised the British flag for the first time in Sydney Cove.

Why did the First Fleet go to Rio de Janeiro?

In 1763 it had been named the new capital of Brazil. In 1808 Portuguese royals fled to Rio to escape Napoleon and remained there at the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. As a consequence, Rio could boast of being the only American city to serve as a centre of European power.

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Why was the Second Fleet called the death Fleet?

It’s no surprise the Second Fleet was known as ‘The Death Fleet. … Of 928 male convicts on Neptune, Scarborough and Surprize, 26 per cent died on the voyage and nearly 40 per cent were dead within months of their arrival in the colony. This shocking mortality rate was nearly ten times that of the First Fleet voyage.

How many babies were born on the First Fleet?

It is estimated there were about 50 children on the First Fleet when it arrived at Botany Bay. Over 20 children were born at sea during the eight-month voyage.

Who was the oldest convict on the First Fleet?

Dorothy Handland
Dorothy Handland (born Dorothy Coolley; c. 1705/26 -) was perhaps the oldest convict transported on the First Fleet.
Dorothy Handland
Born c. 1705/26
Other names Dorothy Handlyn, Dorothy Henley, Dorothy Hanland
Occupation Old clothes woman
Criminal charge(s) Perjury

How long did it take for the First Fleet to get to Australia?

The First Fleet of 11 ships, each one no larger than a Manly ferry, left Portsmouth in 1787 with more than 1480 men, women and children onboard. Although most were British, there were also African, American and French convicts. After a voyage of three months the First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay on 24 January 1788.

What was Sydney called in 1788?

From 1788 to 1900 Sydney was the capital of the British colony of New South Wales. An elected city council was established in 1840.

What was Australia called before it was called Australia?

Terra Australis
Change of name After British colonisation, the name New Holland was retained for several decades and the south polar continent continued to be called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to Australia.

What did the Scarborough carry?

She left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 208 male convicts, together with officers and 34 other ranks of the New South Wales Marine Corps.

What was the biggest ship in the first fleet?

Alexander
Alexander, weighing in at 452 tons, 114 ft long and 31 ft at the beam, the Alexander was commanded by Master Duncan Sinclair. She carried 192 male convicts and was the largest ship in the fleet.Dec 1, 2013

What did British fleet arrived at Sydney with?

The arrival of the First Fleet at Sydney Cove in January of 1788 marked the beginning of the European colonisation of Australia. The fleet was made up of 11 ships carrying convicts from Britain to Australia.

What did the aboriginals think the ships were?

When the First Fleet appeared in Sydney Cove in 1788, carrying British convicts and settlers, coastal-dwelling Aborigines were terrified. They thought that the tall, square-rigged ships must be giant birds or monsters, and that the figures climbing the masts were devils or possums.

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