what factors control the cooling time of magma within the crust


What Factors Control The Cooling Time Of Magma Within The Crust?

What factors control the cooling times of a magma within the crust? The depth of the intrusion, the shape and size of a magma body: the greater the surface area for a given volume of intrusion, the faster it cools, and the presence of circulating ground water: water passing through magma absorbs and carries away heat.

Which factors control the cooling time of magma within the crust chegg?

Question: Which factors control the cooling time of magma within the crust? Choose one or more: the rate at which heat is absorbed from the surroundings the heat difference between the magma and the surface surface water passing over the magma the depth at which the magma cools the volume of the intruded magma.

What are the four main factors that contribute to magma formation?

the formation of magma are temperature, pressure, water content, and mineral content.

What are the 3 conditions that magma is formed?

Magma is formed by both wet and dry melting processes. By melting different parts of the layers of the earth, basaltic, rhyolitic and andesitic magma will be formed.

Where does magma cool at the fastest rate?

Extrusive igneous rocks form above the surface. The lava cools quickly as it pours out onto the surface (Figure below). Extrusive igneous rocks cool much more rapidly than intrusive rocks.

What factors cause melting and thus the formation of magma?

Differences in temperature, pressure, and structural formations in the mantle and crust cause magma to form in different ways. Decompression melting involves the upward movement of Earth’s mostly-solid mantle. This hot material rises to an area of lower pressure through the process of convection.

Is Tuff intrusive or extrusive?

Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to form small crystals. Some cool so quickly that they form an amorphous glass. These rocks include: andesite, basalt, dacite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria, and tuff.

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What factors control the rate of change in the formation of igneous rocks?

This happens when the temperature, pressure or fluid environment change and a rock changes its form (e.g. limestone turns to marble). The range of temperatures for metamophism is 150C up to the melting temperature. The type of rock formed is controlled by the parent rock and the pressure/temperature conditions.

Which of the following factors influence the composition of magma?

The composition of magma depends on the rock it was formed from (by melting), and the conditions of that melting. Magmas derived from the mantle have higher levels of iron, magnesium, and calcium, but they are still likely to be dominated by oxygen and silicon.

What is the most important factor in the formation of magma and this increases with depth?

With increase in temperature the solid rock masses begin to vibrate first then bonding between them breaks and finally they convert into liquid we see as magma. This is the most important factor in the formation of magma.As we do down into the earth, the pressure is increased due to overlying rocks above.

What are three ways intruding magma can affect Earth crust?

Magmatic intrusions affect the crust in several ways. Magma can force overlying rock apart and enter the newly formed fissures. Magma can also cause blocks of rock to break off and sink into the magma chamber. Magma can melt the rock into which it intrudes.

What are the factors affecting the viscosity of magma?

A magma’s viscosity is largely controlled by its temperature, composition, and gas content (see downloadable programs at the bottom of this page). The effect of temperature on viscosity is intuitive. Like most liquids, the higher the temperature, the more fluid a substance becomes, thus lowering its viscosity.

How does the viscosity of magma change as magma cools?

How does the viscosity of magma change as magma cools? It increases with decreased temperature. … Is the viscosity of magma that is higher or lower than magma that is low in silica? Magma high in silica has higher viscosity.

What affects the cooling rate of magma and lava?

What affects cooling rate of magma and lava? The factor that affects the size of the crystals and the texture of the rock is the cooling rate of the molten rock or magma.

What is cooling magma?

Igneous rocks form when magma (molten rock) cools and crystallizes, either at volcanoes on the surface of the Earth or while the melted rock is still inside the crust. … When lava comes out of a volcano and solidifies into extrusive igneous rock, also called volcanic, the rock cools very quickly.

How and why the rate of cooling is different for magma and lava?

The rate at which the magma cools determines the kind of igneous rocks that are formed. Faster cooling surface lava creates rock that is fine grained or aphanitic. The rapid cooling doesn’t allow large crystals to form. … The slower cooling that takes place underground allows larger crystal formation.

Which is the first mineral to form in cooling magma?

The first two minerals to form from a cooling magma are olivine and pyroxene.

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What causes the magma to rise to the surface of the volcano?

Magma can rise when pieces of Earth’s crust called tectonic plates slowly move away from each other. … Magma also rises when these tectonic plates move toward each other. When this happens, part of Earth’s crust can be forced deep into its interior. The high heat and pressure cause the crust to melt and rise as magma.

How does magma influences the explosiveness of an eruption?

More crystals in the magma enable more gas bubbles to form, and so they make an eruption more explosive. The rate at which pressure is reduced also affects the explosiveness. … The speed at which gases are released from magma is also affected by the amount of small crystals in it, where gas bubbles begin to form.

Does Obsidian exist?

obsidian, igneous rock occurring as a natural glass formed by the rapid cooling of viscous lava from volcanoes. Obsidian is extremely rich in silica (about 65 to 80 percent), is low in water, and has a chemical composition similar to rhyolite.

What is the distinction between magma and lava?

Scientists use the term magma for molten rock that is underground and lava for molten rock that breaks through the Earth’s surface.

Is tuff a sedimentary rock?

tuff, a relatively soft, porous rock that is usually formed by the compaction and cementation of volcanic ash or dust. (The Italian term tufa is sometimes restricted to the soft, porous, sedimentary rock formed by the chemical deposition of calcite, or calcium carbonate, or silica from water as sinter.)

What factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed from cooling magma?

The type of igneous rocks that form from magma is a function of three factors: the chemical composition of the magma; temperature of solidification; and the rate of cooling which influences the crystallization process. Magma can vary chemically in its composition.

What are the factors controlling metamorphism?

The main factors that control metamorphic processes are:
  • The chemical composition of the parent rock.
  • The temperature at which metamorphism takes place.
  • The pressure applied, and whether the pressure is equal in all directions or not.
  • The amount and type of fluid (mostly water) that is present during metamorphism.

What are the two factors that control the mineral composition of a metamorphic rock?

Temperature and pressure. Temperature and pressure are important factors in determining the new minerals that form in a metamorphic rock. Different minerals form under different pressure and temperature conditions.

What determines magma composition?

Different minerals within a rocks melt at different temperatures and the amount of partial melting and the composition of the original rock determine the composition of the magma. … The higher the amount of silica in the magma, the higher is its viscosity. Viscosity is a liquid’s resistance to flow.

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Which of the following factors influence the composition of magma quizlet?

The melting of rock to form magma is influenced mainly by which of the following three factors? water content,temperature and pressure.

How does the composition of magma affect the whole characteristic of magma?

Magmas differ in composition, which affects viscosity. Magma composition has a large effect on how a volcano erupts. Felsic lavas are more viscous and erupt explosively or do not erupt. Mafic lavas are less viscous and erupt effusively.

How does the cooling rate affect the texture of the rock?

The texture of an igneous rock (fine-grained vs coarse-grained) is dependent on the rate of cooling of the melt: slow cooling allows large crystals to form, fast cooling yields small crystals. … They cool too quickly to form crystals.

How does temperature affects the formation of magma?

The higher the temperature, the more rock melts and the less viscous the magma is. It should be noted that there are a variety of rocks in the Earth’s mantle and they melt at different temperatures. If the temperature is lower, only some rocks (generally the ones with more silicon content) will melt.

What is the common cause of magma formation in the mantle?

Mantle Because the temperature of the mantle is fairly constant, a decrease in pressure is the most common cause of magma formation.

What happens after magma is formed?

Magma cools and crystallizes to form igneous rock. Igneous rock undergoes weathering (or breakdown) to form sediment. … As the sedimentary rock is buried under more and more sediment, the heat and pressure of burial cause metamorphism to occur. This transforms the sedimentary rock into a metamorphic rock.

What 2 factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed?

The two major factors that influence the creation of igneous rocks are the original rock that was melted and the cooling history of the molten rocks.

What are the 3 types of magma that commonly form volcanoes?

The high temperatures and pressure under Earth’s crust keep magma in its fluid state. There are three basic types of magma: basaltic, andesitic, and rhyolitic, each of which has a different mineral composition.


How Does Magma Move? (Chapter 5 – Section 5.7)

HOW DOES MAGMA FORM? | Magma Formation | Earth Science

Magma Factors

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