how much of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation reaches earth’s surface?


How Much Of The Sun’s Ultraviolet Radiation Reaches Earth’s Surface??

Both UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation reach earth’s surface and are damaging to living organisms. Although nine percent of the sun’s radiation is UVR, much less reaches Earth’s surface, because ozone (O3) in the stratosphere strongly absorbs it.

How much UVC reaches the Earth?

At ground level with the sun at zenith, sunlight is 44% visible light, 3% ultraviolet, and the remainder infrared. Of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface, more than 95% is the longer wavelengths of UVA, with the small remainder UVB. Almost no UVC reaches the Earth’s surface.

What percentage of the suns ultraviolet radiation does the atmosphere absorb?

In total approximately 70% of incoming radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface while around 30% is reflected back to space and does not heat the surface.

How much UV radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer?

Ozone absorbs the most energetic wavelengths of ultraviolet light, known as UV-C and UV-B, wavelengths that harm living things. Oxygen molecules absorb other forms of ultraviolet light, too. Together, ozone and oxygen molecules are able to absorb 95 to 99.9% of the ultraviolet radiation that gets to our planet.

What percentage of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth’s surface is absorbed by clouds?

The amount of solar energy reaching the Earth is 70 percent. The surface of the Earth absorbs 51 percent of the insolation. Water vapor and dust account for 16 percent of the energy absorbed. The other 3 percent is absorbed by clouds.

What material can UVC pass through?

Materials that are Transparent to UVC (100-280 nm)

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Highly purified calcium fluoride(CaF2) is a material that is UVC transparent since it can be used down to 160nm. This is the same case for other fluorides like Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) and Lithium Fluoride (LiF). Lithium Fluoride is UV transparent down to 110 nm.

Does UVC penetrate glass?

UVC light cannot pass through glass. There is no harm to look through an air handling unit access window at UVC lighting.

What is the total percentage of solar energy absorbed?

71 percent
Thus, about 71 percent of the total incoming solar energy is absorbed by the Earth system. Of the 340 watts per square meter of solar energy that falls on the Earth, 29% is reflected back into space, primarily by clouds, but also by other bright surfaces and the atmosphere itself.

How does UV radiation penetrate the atmosphere?

A layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs UV radiation and prevents most of it from reaching the Earth. … This means that more ultraviolet radiation can pass through the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface, particularly at the poles and nearby regions during certain times of the year.

What layer of the atmosphere that protects life on Earth by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation?

The ozone layer
The ozone layer acts as a shield for life on Earth. Ozone is good at trapping a type of radiation called ultraviolet radiation, or UV light, which can penetrate organisms’ protective layers, like skin, damaging DNA molecules in plants and animals.May 9, 2011

What percentage of UV radiation is absorbed in the atmosphere and how much UV radiation makes to the Earth’s surface?

Ozone absorbs about 50 percent of the UV-A rays. Those numbers are dependent upon the density of ozone in the atmosphere.

What is the average concentration of ozone in the ozone layer of the atmosphere in percentage?

The total mass of ozone in the atmosphere is about 3 billion metric tons. That may seem like a lot, but it is only 0.00006 percent of the atmosphere. The peak concentration of ozone occurs at an altitude of roughly 32 kilometers (20 miles) above the surface of the Earth.

How does the ozone layer absorb UV radiation?

Ozone absorbs UV-B radiation from the sun. When an ozone molecule absorbs UV-B, it comes apart into an oxygen molecule (O2) and a separate oxygen atom (O). … By absorbing UV-B in the stratosphere, the ozone layer prevents harmful levels of this radiation from reaching Earth’s surface.

What percentage of energy coming from the sun is re radiated towards the space?

30% is directly reflected back i.e re-radiated towards space by clouds, the earth’s surface, and different gases and particles in the atmosphere (the earth’s albedo is 0.3 on average).

How does the amount of radiation emitted by Earth differ from that emitted by the sun?

How does the amount of radiation emitted by the earth differ from that emitted by the sun? The earth emits most of its radiation at a longer wavellenghts between about 5 and 25 um, while the sun emits the majority of its radiation at wavelenghts less than 2um.

How much solar radiation actually reaches the earth quizlet?

The amount of solar radiation arriving on Earth, known as the solar constant, is 1370 W/m2.

Can UVC pass through fabric?

A tightly woven fabric protects better than loosely woven clothing. Dry fabric is generally more protective than wet fabric. Be aware that covering up doesn’t block out all UV rays. If you can see light through a fabric, UV rays can get through, too.

Does UVC damage plastic?

All types of UV can cause a photochemical effect within the polymer structure, which can lead to degradation of some sort to the material. The higher energy UVC is the type most likely to affect plastics. … Those free radicals can cause breaks in the polymer bonds.

Can UVC penetrate fabric?

Check a fabric’s sun safety by holding it up to the light. If you can see through, UV radiation can easily penetrate the fabric and reach your skin. … Tight clothing can stretch and reduce the level of protection offered, as the fibers pull away from each other and allow more UV light to pass through.

How is UV-C intensity calculated?

How to Calculate UV-C Dose on a Surface
  1. To get accurate dose data you need to start with a UV-C detector. …
  2. UV Dose = UV Intensity (μW/cm² ) x Exposure Time (seconds)
  3. Exposure time is how long the UV light is ON and delivering UV to a surface. …
  4. This value can be compared to the table below for various microorganisms.
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What does the C stand for in UV-C?

ultraviolet. … ultraviolet C (UVC) ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 200 and 290 nm; all of this type of radiation is filtered out by the ozone layer so that none reaches the earth’s surface. Ultraviolet C is germicidal and is also used in ultraviolet phototherapy.

Does glass or plastic block 100 of UV-C rays?

Standard window glass, according to the International Ultraviolet Association, will allow UV-A to pass through while almost 100% of the UV-B and UV-C light is blocked.

How do you calculate solar radiation absorbed?

To determine how much energy Earth absorbs from sunlight, we must multiply the energy intercepted (that we calculated above) times one minus the albedo value; since albedo represents the light reflected away, one minus albedo equals the light energy absorbed.

How much solar energy hits the Earth in percentage?

Solar power is anticipated to become the world’s largest source of electricity by 2050, with solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power contributing 16 and 11 percent to the global overall consumption, respectively. In 2016, after another year of rapid growth, solar generated 1.3% of global power.

What is the rate of solar energy reaching the Earth surface in watts?

At Earth’s average distance from the Sun (about 150 million kilometers), the average intensity of solar energy reaching the top of the atmosphere directly facing the Sun is about 1,360 watts per square meter, according to measurements made by the most recent NASA satellite missions.

Does the amount of UV light reaching the Earth vary?

It does vary in a predictable manner. It varies based on the orientation relative to the sun: the closer to the equator, the more UV radiation.

What is the frequency range of UV radiation?

Ultraviolet (UV) light falls in the range of the EM spectrum between visible light and X-rays. It has frequencies of about 8 × 1014 to 3 × 1016 cycles per second, or hertz (Hz), and wavelengths of about 380 nanometers (1.5 × 10−5 inches) to about 10 nm (4 × 10−7 inches)…

What type of ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by ozone?

All of the UVC and most of the UVB radiation is absorbed by the earth’s ozone layer, so nearly all of the ultraviolet radiation received on Earth is UVA. UVA and UVB radiation can both affect health.

What protects the Earth from radiation?

The Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic shield protect us from cosmic radiation. Earth’s magnetic shield protects us from the cosmic radiation and is strongest at the equator and weakest near the poles. … Earth’s atmosphere shields us from most of the remaining radiation that travels to Earth.

What gases absorb ultraviolet radiation?

Nitrogen, oxygen and ozone molecules in the upper atmosphere and stratosphere absorb ultraviolet light from the Sun, providing a shield that prevents this radiation from passing to the Earth’s surface.

How does the presence of oxygen in our atmosphere help reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface?

A freed oxygen atom then combines with another oxygen molecule to form a molecule of ozone. There is so much oxygen in our atmosphere, that these high-energy ultraviolet rays are completely absorbed in the stratosphere.

What percentage of our atmosphere is oxygen?

Earth’s atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and one percent other gases.

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Which radiation band is completely absorbed in the atmosphere?

Far Ultraviolet (FUV) Light (100-200nm) The last UV subtype has the most energy and highest frequency of all UV radiation: Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Light (10-100nm) can only travel through a vacuum, and is completely absorbed in Earth’s atmosphere. EUV radiation ionizes the upper atmosphere, creating the ionosphere.

Which type of UV radiation is most harmful?

UVC rays
UVB rays, which affect skin’s top layer, cause skin cancer and most sunburns. Although UVA and UVB rays pose the greatest risk for sun damage, people who work with welding torches or mercury lamps may be exposed to UVC rays, the most dangerous type of UV radiation.

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