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briefly explain why you were told to simultaneously measure

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Why you were told to simultaneously measure the melting points of the mixtures and of the pure unknown?

Also, we were told to simultaneously measure the melting points of each mixture and the pure unknown. The reason for this would be so that we could easily see if the unknown and the mixture were melting similarly (at the same rate).

What two effects a soluble impurity usually has?

Two effects of a soluble impurity on the melting point of a compound are: If soluble impurities are present then the melting point will be changed and therefore it will be observed correct. Presence of impurities often result in attainment of a range of melting point i.e., it will not be sharp.

What are the reasons to determine the melting point of a sample in a melting point apparatus?

The determination of a melting point of a sample is a standard laboratory procedure and is relatively straightforward. It is used to identify a sample, establish its purity, and determine the thermal stability of the sample.

Why is mixed melting point useful?

If two substances melt at the same temperature, a Mixed Melting Point determination can reveal if they are one and the same substance. The phenomenon of melting point depression can be applied to the identification of unknown pure substances.

Why do impurities lower melting point?

Foreign substances in a crystalline solid disrupt the repeating pattern of forces that holds the solid together. Therefore, a smaller amount of energy is required to melt the part of the solid surrounding the impurity. This explains the melting point depression (lowering) observed from impure solids.

Why do impurities broaden melting point?

The presence of even a small amount of impurity will lower a compound’s melting point by a few degrees and broaden the melting point temperature range. Because the impurity causes defects in the crystalline lattice, it is easier to overcome the intermolecular interactions between the molecules.

Why is it important that a solid is completely dry before measuring its melting point?

When crystals are isolated by filtration from a solvent, it is important to allow complete drying/evaporation of the solvent in order to get a good melting range. Residual solvent functions as a contaminant and will depress/broaden the melting range for a crystal.

What are two reasons for taking the melting point of a compound?

There are several reasons to determine a compound’s melting point: it is useful in supporting the identification of a compound, as well as serving as a rough guide to the relative purity of the sample.

What does melting point tell us?

Melting points are often used to characterize organic and inorganic crystalline compounds and to ascertain their purity. Pure substances melt at a sharp, highly-defined temperature (very small temperature range of 0.5 – 1 °C) whereas impure, contaminated substances generally exhibit a large melting interval.

What does the melting point data tell you?

The temperature at which a solid melts is known as the melting point (MP) of that substance. The melting point is a physical property of a solid and can be used to help identify a substance. … For example, if an unknown solid melts at 102-106° C, the 4° range suggests that the sample is impure.

Why do mixtures melt over a range of temperatures?

Role of intermolecular forces

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These forces must be disrupted when a substance melts, which requires an input of energy. The input of energy translates to an elevated temperature. So, the stronger the forces that hold together a solid, the higher its melting point.

What is the meaning of eutectic mixture?

The eutectic mixture is the specific composition of at least two solid components that produces a change of phase to liquid at a certain temperature. This temperature receives the name of eutectic point temperature and corresponds to the minimum melting temperature of the different possible compositions.

Why were the two melting points different what was responsible for the change in the melting point?

The two liquids are different—and so the melting points are different—only because one represents an intermediate stage. It was a melting-point suppression effect, just like salt and ice, but it was much larger than anyone on the team had thought possible.

Why do impure liquids boil at higher temperatures?

Boiling point is related to the vapour pressure of the solution. On adding an impurity, the vapor pressure of solution decreases. With an increase in concentration of solute, vapour pressure decreases, hence boiling point increases. … For example – adding salt to water will lead to increase in its boiling point.

Why do we need to measure the melting point of a solid compound after purification?

Determining the melting point of a compound is one way to test if the substance is pure. … Impurities tend to depress and broaden the melting range so the purified sample should have a higher and smaller melting range than the original, impure sample.

Why do some liquids melt faster than others?

1) Different masses or densities. The rate at which a substance changes temperature is related to its mass. If 1 fluid ounce of ice cream is less dense than a fluid ounce of coffee, the ice cream will change temperatre more quickly.

What do you mean by eutectic temperature?

Eutectic Temperature or Eutectic Point: The eutectic temperature is the lowest possible melting temperature for all of the mixing ratios of the component substances in a eutectoid. At this temperature, the super-lattice will release all of its components and the eutectic system will melt into a liquid as a whole.

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Why is the capillary tube placed such that the open end is above the oil level?

The shape of the Thiele tube allows for formation of convection currents in the oil when it is heated. … It is important that this rubber band be above the level of the oil (allowing for expansion of the oil on heating). Otherwise, the oil softens the rubber and allows the capillary tubing to fall into the oil.

What instrument determines melting point?

A melting-point apparatus is a scientific instrument used to determine the melting point of a substance. Some types of melting-point apparatuses include the Thiele tube, Fisher-Johns apparatus, Gallenkamp (Electronic) melting-point apparatus and automatic melting-point apparatus.

What could be done to see if the product were completely dry?

There are several ways to determine if the product is dry. One way is to check for dryness during the drying phase. In this process, the product is dissolved in methylene chloride and is being dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate . If you feel that the organic solution is dry, add a bit more sodium sulfate.

What is the purpose of using calibrated thermometer for determination of melting point?

The melting point of a solid is useful information in determining its identity and purity. In this lab, you will calibrate a melting point apparatus and learn to be proficient in taking a melting point. The calibration is necessary to ensure that the data obtained is as reliable as possible.

What would happen to your melting point if you failed to dry your compound completely?

The melting point will be lowered and broadened. Incomplete drying of a sample may result in the presence of impurities. When impurities remain present in a sample, the melting point is both lowered and broadened.

Why is it necessary to measure the melting point of an organic compound?

What is the importance of knowing the melting point of organic compounds? The melting point is an important physical property of a compound. The melting point can be used to identify a substance and as an indication of its purity. … The melting point range of > 5oC indicates that the substance is impure.

Why might it be difficult to detect when a solid sample starts melting in a melting point apparatus?

Why would a eutectic point or temperature be difficult to detect? Impurities could cause the mixture to begin melting at a temperature lower than the eutectic point. … Insoluble impurities are poor heat conductors and act just like air pockets.

Why do substances quickly melt completely?

When energy is added in the form of heat, the water molecules begin to get excited and move around. As more and more heat is added, the molecules move faster and faster, causing the structure of the molecules to loosen. … You see this in the form of solid ice turning to liquid water, or what we know as melting.

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Why is freezing and melting important?

This means that we can use the freezing or melting point as an indicator of the purity of a substance. When a solid is melted by heating or a liquid frozen while cooled, the temperature remains constant.

What is the freeze point?

Medical Definition of freezing point

: the temperature at which a liquid solidifies specifically : the temperature at which the liquid and solid states of the substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure : melting point the freezing point of water is 0° Celsius or 32° Fahrenheit.

Why is it important to know the melting point of any substance you are working with in a chemistry lab?

The purpose of melting and boiling points in a lab experiment is to use them to help identifiy unknown substances. … The smaller the melting point range, the more pure the substance is. The larger the melting point range, the less pure the substance is.

How does melting point signify purity of a substance?

Impurities, even when present in small amounts, usually lower the melting point and broaden the melting point range. A wide melting point range (more than 5°C) usually indicates that the substance is impure; a narrow melting point range (O. 5-2°C) usually indicates that the substance is fairly pure.

What is the importance of slip melting point analysis?

Importance of the Slip Melting Point of palm oil

The Slip Melting Point aids in the characterization of the palm oil and supports international trade, making standardization and compliance pivotal.

Why do mixtures have higher boiling points?

Large molecules have more electrons and nuclei that create van der Waals attractive forces, so their compounds usually have higher boiling points than similar compounds made up of smaller molecules. … The attractive forces between the latter group are generally greater.

Why is the liquid bath stirred regularly during the determination of melting point?

Why is the liquid bath stirred regularly during the determination of melting point? To keep the volume of the bath constant. To keep the temperature of the bath uniform throughout.

Which melts faster pure substance or mixture?

Distinguishing between pure substances and mixtures

Pure substances have a sharp melting point but mixtures melt over a range of temperatures. This difference is most easily seen when the temperature of a liquid is measured as it cools and freezes .

What is the eutectic composition and why is it important?

Eutectics form one single common crystal when crystallized (Hasnain, 1998). One of the most important characteristics of eutectics is their capability to melt/freeze congruently without phase segregation.

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